Memo to Self...

Monday, September 24, 2001

There's something I have to get up here very quickly before I run over to Cavanaugh to study and study and study for my Japanese quiz. And this is just so I can review comparisons.

These are age, height, that sort of thing comparisons. Essentially, the formula for it is:

person wa person yori mo (comparison) desu.

For ex, to say "Mom is one year younger than Dad":
Okaasan wa otousan yori mo ichisai wakai desu.
It can also be said "Dad is older than Mom."
Otousan wa okaasan yori mo ue desu.

Some of the expressions that can be used around age are:
wakai=young, younger
toshishita=younger than
toshiue=older than
For other things:
To say something like, "Pam is shorter than Mom, but taller than Debbie":
Pamu wa okaasan yori mo hikui desu GA, Debbie yori mo takai desu.
To say someone is inbetween (as in, actually inbetween), this:
Debbie no se wa Arisu to Pamy no mannaka desu.
(In other words, Person's thing wa two compared people no mannaka desu.)

Spanish: Dios miyo, FINALLY getting around to blogging my Spanish stuff. For this entry, we have the FUTURE and CONDITIONAL tenses. Why? 'Cause they're formed in a very similar way, and use the same stems.
First of all, the normal endings:
Future: é, ás, á, emos, éis, án
Conditional: ía, ías, ía, íamos, ías, ían
These endings are the same for all three verb types. They're also added not to a certain stem ('cept for the irregulars) but the whole verb. So comprar in future and conditional is:
compraré, comprarás, comprará...
compraría, comprarías, compraría...
This makes pronouncing these verbs just right sometimes problematic.
And of course, the irregulars. Rather, the irregular stems. And surprisingly enough, neither ser, estar, ir, or dar are on this list. *wonder, wonder, wow!*
    Irregular stems for fut. and condit.
  • saldr(salir) vendr(venir) pondr (poner)
  • tendr(tener) podr(poder) valdr (valer)
  • habr(haber) sabr(saber) cabr(caber)
  • har(hacer) dir(decir) querr(querer)

Usos del futuro:
1. To indicate an action, state, or condition occuring after the present moment
Saldré para el aeropuerto dentro de una hora. (I'll leave for the airport within an hour.)
2. To express conjecture, probability, or doubt about an action, state, or condition, in the present or the future. The book says it's equivalent to "I wonder" or "I suppose," though there is a verb for the second. (Suponer)
Que hora será?--What time can it be?
3. It can also be used for commands or orders.
Escribirás la carta en seguida--You will write the letter.
4. There are actually three ways to express a future action. The first, and most students' favorite, is ir+a+infinite, or going to___ something, as in voy a caminar al parque--I'm going to walk to the park.
The second is with a verb in the present, if it follows some sort of time phrase Example: Mañana salgo para Japon.
The third is with the actual tense.

Usos del condicional
1. To express an idea in the future related to an idea in the past.
Él dijo que compraría las entradas.--He said that he would buy the theater tickets.
2. To express what would've have happened if something else hadn't occured. (much easier than it sounds.)
Iría contigo, pero no tengo tiempo.--I would've gone with you, but I didn't have time.
3. When using frases beginning with "si," the conditional is combined with the imperfect subjunctive.
Si Pepe llamara, hablaría con él.--If Pepe calls, I will talk with him.
4. To express probability, conjecture or doubt about a condition, state, or action in the PAST. PAST TENSE. PAST. :)
Serían las dos cuando él llegó.--It was probably two o'clock when he arrived.
5. Desear, poder, querer, and deber are used in the conditional to express courtesy.
Deberías visitar a tus abuelos.
6. They don't have this explicitly here, but the conditional is also used for "wishing." In essence, if asked a question like, "What would you do if you won the lottery?" you'd answer in conditional. It's something that would be in the future, but not likely to happen. "Gustar" is also a popular conditional verb--for example, "Me gustaría comer galletas ahora" (I would like to eat cookies now).
7. The book does note that students should check out the relationship between past and present. Here it is:
present <-> future
pret./imperfect <-> conditional